India Railways network in 1909



via India_railways1909a.jpg 1,322×1,103 pixels.


Structure: the paper | Writing a journal article

No matter what type of paper you write, it needs to have a clear thread through it, and sections need to clearly link. One of the challenges is that writing is linear – it has a start point and an end point. By contrast, much academic content is complex – more like a website, where things are related in many different directions. The challenge of writing is to turn the multi-facetted nature of the content (where everything is related and linked to everything else, like the internet) into a simple, one-directional argument.

via Structure: the paper | Writing a journal article.


The IMRAD (/ˈɪmræd/) structure is the most prominent norm for the structure of a scientific journal article of the original research type. IMRAD is an acronym for introduction, methods, results, and discussion.

via IMRAD – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Wikipedia:How to structure the content – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article explains how to structure the content of articles, with the purpose of ensuring completeness and improving readability. It is based on the principle that similar articles (e.g. on chemical elements) should be structured in a similar fashion.

via Wikipedia:How to structure the content – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Wikipedia:Writing better articles – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

I got this off Wikipedia – and its about how to write effective and informative articles. Imagine you are writing a 3000 word piece – thats 10 paragraphs, each of 300 words. As this link says – each paragraph is to contain one topic. Additionally:

1. Each article starts with a ‘lead’ thats an introduction to the article.

2. This link is one of many about how to write for wikipedia.

This page sets out advice on how to write an effective article, including information on layout, style, and how to make an article clear, precise and relevant to the reader.

via Wikipedia:Writing better articles – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


Late 19th- and Early 20th-Century Asian Cities

Click on the links below to access scans of some of the late 19th- and early 20th-century sheet maps of Asian (or partly Asian) cities that are held at the University of Chicago Library’s Map Collection.

Several of the cities portrayed in these maps are now among the world’s largest, but they were all much smaller places during the years when the maps were compiled. The largest–late Qing Beijing and early 20th-century Calcutta–each had more than a million inhabitants, but they were nothing like the sprawling “megacities” of today. The cities couldn’t sprawl, since most of their inhabitants got about largely on foot. Surface rail transit was initiated in many of the cities before the end of the 19th century, but it was nowhere as extensive as in major Western cities of the same period. As a result, population density in the largest of these cities was extraordinarily high.

The cities can be classed roughly into several types. Some were still quite traditional. Their morphology followed either the East Asian tradition of religiously sanctioned cardinality (example: Beijing) or the Middle Eastern one in which hardly anything but mosque alignment was centrally planned (example: Aleppo). The geography of other cities (like Bombay and Jakarta) was essentially that of the “colonial city,” whose physical structure could be said to have been determined by the (sometimes contradictory) goals of efficiency, security, ethnic separation, and the comfort of the ruling class. Still other cities–Delhi and Hanoi–were older places of a traditional type with important colonial additions. No claim can be made that there ever was such a thing as an “Asian city.”

via Late 19th- and Early 20th-Century Asian Cities.


Trade Routes between Europe and Asia during Antiquity | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Long-distance trade played a major role in the cultural, religious, and artistic exchanges that took place between the major centers of civilization in Europe and Asia during antiquity. Some of these trade routes had been in use for centuries, but by the beginning of the first century A.D., merchants, diplomats, and travelers could (in theory) cross the ancient world from Britain and Spain in the west to China and Japan in the east. The trade routes served principally to transfer raw materials, foodstuffs, and luxury goods from areas with surpluses to others where they were in short supply. Some areas had a monopoly on certain materials or goods. China, for example, supplied West Asia and the Mediterranean world with silk, while spices were obtained principally from South Asia. These goods were transported over vast distances— either by pack animals overland or by seagoing ships—along the Silk and Spice Routes, which were the main arteries of contact between the various ancient empires of the Old World. Another important trade route, known as the Incense Route, was controlled by the Arabs, who brought frankincense and myrrh by camel caravan from South Arabia.

via Trade Routes between Europe and Asia during Antiquity | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art.